discussion 4 quiz

growth and nonlocals

Complete the implementation of `print_by_level`

, which takes in a tree and prints each “level” of the tree in sequential order, as a series of lists. A level of a tree is defined as all the elements at the same depth from the root. Assume that you can use `branches(tree)`

and `root(tree)`

.

```
def print_by_level(t):
"""Prints each level of the tree as a list.
>>> t = tree(1, [
... tree(3, [
... tree(2),
... tree(4, [
... tree(8)
... ])]),
... tree(6, [
... tree(5),
... tree(7)])])
>>> print_by_level(t)
[1]
[3, 6]
[2, 4, 5, 7]
[8]
"""
current_level, next_level = [t], []
while len(current_level) != 0:
shown_values = []
for tree in current_level:
next_level.extend(____________)
shown_values.append(____________)
print(shown_values)
current_level, next_level = ____________, ____________
```

```
def print_by_level(t):
"""Prints each level of the tree as a list.
>>> t = tree(1, [
... tree(3, [
... tree(2),
... tree(4, [
... tree(8)
... ])]),
... tree(6, [
... tree(5),
... tree(7)])])
>>> print_by_level(t)
[1]
[3, 6]
[2, 4, 5, 7]
[8]
"""
current_level, next_level = [t], []
while len(current_level) != 0:
shown_values = []
for tree in current_level:
next_level.extend(children(tree))
shown_values.append(label(tree))
print(shown_values)
current_level, next_level = next_level, []
```

Implement a function `running_total`

that mutates a list of numbers such that the $i$th element is the sum of the first $i+1$ elements.

```
def running_total(lst):
"""Computes a running total over a list of numbers.
>>> lst = [1, 2, 3]
>>> running_total(lst) # mutates the original list, returns None
>>> lst # [1, 1+2, 1+2+3]
[1, 3, 6]
"""
return
```

```
def running_total(lst):
"""Computes a running total over a list of numbers.
>>> lst = [1, 2, 3]
>>> running_total(lst) # mutates the original list, returns None
>>> lst # [1, 1+2, 1+2+3]
[1, 3, 6]
"""
total = 0
for i in range(len(lst)):
total += lst[i]
lst[i] = total
```

Draw the environment diagram.

```
def world(series):
if len(series) % 2 == 0:
series[0] = series[:2]
return [series.pop(1)]
else:
return series[:2]
blue_jays = [1, 2, 3, 4]
cardinals = world(blue_jays)
cubs = world(blue_jays)
royals = world(cubs)
```